Typologies of Housing Construction in the Indian Context

Difference Between Plotted Development (PD) and Flatted Development (FD)

Housing, because of its magnitude and quantity, remains the major and important component of any city. Occupying largest proportion of urban land, housing   is also known to be the definer of the personality of   the city. Urban housing   comes in number of variants and typologies. However, these variants can be divided into two broad categories. These categories are generally defined as plotted development and flatted development. There is a third variant, which is a mix of plotted and flatted development. These categories have their own advantages, disadvantages, limitations and implications. Debate has been going on to understand the implication of these typologies in terms of physical, social, economic and environmental implications including cost-effectiveness and utilization of land. Accordingly, attempt has been made to understand the context of these broad typologies in the parlance of economy, cost-effectiveness, operational efficiency, utilization of land, creating housing stock, pattern of development, land ownership etc.

Plotted Development
Flatted Development

1. Pattern of Development

PD- Involves development based on and comprising of number of plots having variable size- both smaller   and larger size     

FD- Involves development based on plot having much larger area as compared to plotted   development

2. Pattern of Land Ownership

PD-   Land generally owned   individually or jointly in the name of few family/friends to promote individual housing

FD-      Land held in joint ownership of all stakeholders comprising of all  the flat owners on the plot.    

3. Pattern of development- Height

PD- Low rise– going generally up to 3/4 stories  

FD- High rise –generally going   4 or more stories. 

4. Land Utilisation

PD- Low level of land utilisation -with larger area going under roads, opens spaces and community facilities

 FD- High land utilisation–with smaller area going under roads, opens spaces and community facilities

5. Population/Housing Density

PD—Low density and low population– due to individual ownership, depending on size of plots carved. Smaller the size of plots, higher will be the density and population. Population also depends upon individual capacity, resources or willingness to construct entire or part of building

FD- High density– due to joint ownership, depending upon combined resources and combined effort of all stakeholders to provide dwelling to all land  owners, developed to full capacity using full density and floor area ratio.

6. Open Spaces

PD- Small in area – Open spaces available within plots and held in private ownership with  use limited to only by the owners- Increases need for provision of large common open spaces at the  neighbourhood/sub-sector/sector level for the community.

FD- Large in area- jointly held in ownership to be used widely for the benefit of all the residents. Help reduce making provision of  large  open spaces at the sector level.

7. Cost of Construction

PD- Generally high—due to independent construction and being low rise buildings

FD- Generally low– due to multiple and repetitive design of dwelling units and sharing of the foundation, walls and open spaces etc

8. Social Sustainability

PD- Low social sustainability– due to lower social interaction promote by individual living

FD- High social sustainability– due to higher social interaction based on community living

9. Safety and Security

 PD—Low order of safety and security – due to individual living

 FD- High degree of safety and security–due to community living

10. Pattern of Living

 PD- Promotes individual living leading to anonymity and exclusion

 FD- Promotes community living leading to higher social interaction

11. Design of Unit

PD- More flexibility in design–due to single unit and limited ownership- bases on owners choice.

FD- Low design flexibility –due to multiple units and joint ownership leading to repetitive nature of design of dwelling units- based on common consensus. 

12. Cost of Maintenance of Services

PD- Higher cost– due to individual maintenance. Expensive considering life-cycle cost of building. 

FD- Low maintenance cost- due to collective maintenance done by society created by the flat owners. Monthly maintenance charges  paid by each flat owner. Cost- effective considering life –cycle cost

13. Creation of Housing Stock

PD- Low capacity to create housing stock- due to non-construction on plot in one go leading to lower land utilisation

FD- High housing stock- due to construction of all flats in one go – leading to higher land utilization

14. Affordable Housing

PD- Makes cost of housing high and unaffordable– due to land cost and cost of construction–. Inefficient method to create large affordable housing stock

FD- Makes housing cost-effective and affordable– due to shared land cost and lower cost of construction, best method to create large housing stock 

15. Sustainability

PD- Low sustainability-due to large dependence on common facilities and services provided at the neighbourhood level.

FD- High sustainability- due to provision of common facilities and basic services as part of group housing

16. Technologies

PD- Offers limited options for using state of art construction technologies and minimising cost 

FD- Offers large options for using state of art construction technologies to promote cost and material efficiency

17. Green & Energy Efficient Buildings

PD- Offers limited effective /efficient and cost-effective options– for promoting energy efficiency, rain water harvesting, ground water recharging and solid waste management

FD- Offers large effective/efficient and cost-effective options–for promoting energy efficiency, rain water harvesting, ground water recharging and solid waste management- based on community living 

18. Ground Coverage

PD- Ground coverage generally higher– as compared to flatted development 

Ground coverage and FAR varies and gets lower with increase in plot area.

Number of development units and population density not defined for plotted development

FD- Ground coverage generally low as compared to plotted development

Ground coverage and FAR do not change   even with increase/decrease in plot area. Development largely governed by pre-defined density, floor area ratio, height, ground coverage  and size of dwelling units.

19. Parking Norms

PD- Parking norms are generally not defined for plotted development.

FD- Parking norms are clearly and precisely defined–for flatted development, depending on the size and category/number of dwelling units

20. Rate of Return

PD– Offers better internal rate of return for developers/owners due to higher demand from investors, clear land ownership and faster disposal. Popular in small and medium towns.

FD – Offers comparatively lower internal rate of return for developers/owners – generally due to lower demand from investors, no defined title to land and slow disposal. Most popular in large size/metro cities, where land prices are high.

21. Completion of Project

PD— Faster Completion of projects as compared to build up flats 

FD—Takes large time for completion of project- due to scale of project and large numbers of houses to   be constructed and problem of co-ordination and co-operation among members of society

22. Risk 

PD—Lower risk- due to quick approval and faster disposal, with low risk due to minimum construction involved and faster exit from project 

FD— High risk- due to multiple approvals and slow disposal, with higher risk due to large scale construction involved and slow exit from project. 

23. Affordability 

PD— Plots are more affordable and cater to wider segments of society by offering numerous options to buyers due to varying sizes of plots

FD— Flats generally become unaffordable and offer limited options to buyers due to their built up nature , predefined design and area.

24. Acceptability 

PD— Plots are always acceptable and liked by buyers even in adverse market conditions due to human psyche of owning land. Plots are universally accepted both in large and small towns.

FD—Flats have low level of acceptability particularly in the adverse market conditions. Flats have least acceptability in small towns and are generally favoured in the large towns.

25. Developer’s Preference

PD- Plotted development –has always been preferred by developers having large chunk of land and resources– due to early exit and making large profit with minimal effort

FD—- Flatted development– has generally been preferred by small developers having smaller chunk of land with limited  resources .

26. Land Cost

PDLow land cost in majority of cases promotes plotted development with large plot area. Plot size and Land Cost are negatively correlated with plot size going small with increase in land prices..

FDHigh land cost discourages plotted development but leverages flatted development. Land Cost and building footprints are negatively co-related with flat size  reducing with increase in land prices. 

27. Housing Stock

PD- Plotted development –worst and most inefficient option for creating large   housing stock 

FD—- Flatted development—best and most cost-effective option to create large housing stock at most affordable price

28. Living 

PD-     Plotted development –best option for   individual based/ family living for young people 

FD—- Flatted development—best option for living in case of individuals, working/old age couples etc

29. Safety

PD- Plotted development –low level of safety and security

FD- Flatted development– High level of safety and security

30. Self- sufficiency

PD- Plotted development –less self-sufficiency-high dependence on neighbourhood level facilities

FD- Flatted development—More self-sufficiency- due to provision of common facilities- parks, shops, community spaces, crèche, school etc within the society complex

Previous post
Next post
Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!
Optimized with PageSpeed Ninja